Conditions and Subjects Covered in Trichology

Acne Keloid

Acne keloid is a unique form of acne that results in the development of keloid scars. This condition occurs when acne lesions become inflamed and trigger an abnormal healing process, leading to the overproduction of collagen. The excessive collagen production results in raised, thickened, and sometimes painful scars known as keloids. These scars can appear on various parts of the body, including the back of the scalp.


Accelerated Vellus Hair

Accelerated vellus hair growth refers to the unusual growth of fine, soft vellus hairs into thicker, darker terminal hairs. This phenomenon can occur due to factors such as hormonal imbalances or certain medical conditions. The transformation of vellus hairs into terminal hairs can lead to changes in hair density and texture.

Acquired Progressive Kinking

Acquired progressive kinking is a condition characterized by the development of tight curls or kinks along the hair shaft. This change in hair texture can result from various factors, including chemical treatments, heat styling, or underlying medical conditions. The kinks can cause the hair to become more brittle and prone to breakage.

Acne Necrotica Miliaris & Varioliformis

Acne necrotica varioliformis is characterized by the presence of pustules that progress to varioliform (pockmark-like) scars on the scalp. The condition is believed to result from a combination of factors, including inflammation, infection, and an abnormal immune response within the hair follicles.

Acne Keloidalis

Acne keloidalis, also known as folliculitis keloidalis or nuchal keloidalis, is a chronic inflammatory condition that primarily affects the back of the scalp and nape of the neck. It is characterized by the development of inflamed papules, pustules, and keloid-like scars. The exact cause of acne keloidalis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve factors such as genetics, shaving, and hair trauma.


L''Óreal Research

Afroid Hair

Afroid hair, often referred to as Afro-textured hair, is a unique hair type characterized by its tightly coiled and curly nature. This hair type is common among individuals of African descent and has distinct characteristics that require specific care and maintenance practices.


Young African boy with albinism

Girl with albinism from Papua New Guinea


Albinism is a genetic condition that results in the absence or reduction of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair, and eye color. Individuals with albinism often have very light-colored hair and may experience increased sensitivity to sunlight.


Alopecia Areata

Alopecia Areata after Mico Scalp Pigmentation (MSP) treatment

Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition that leads to the sudden onset of hair loss in well-defined patches on the scalp and other areas of the body. The exact cause of alopecia areata is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve immune system dysfunction that targets hair follicles.


Alopecia Totalis

Alopecia Totalis after Mico Scalp Pigmentation (MSP) treatment

Alopecia Totalis

Alopecia totalis is a more advanced form of alopecia areata, characterized by the complete loss of hair on the scalp. It is believed to be an autoimmune condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.


Alopecia Universalis

Alopecia universalis is the most extensive form of alopecia areata, causing complete hair loss on the scalp and body. Like other forms of alopecia areata, it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that targets hair follicles.


The portrait, by an unknown artist, adds to the five prints of Barbara van Beck the Wellcome Foundation already has. Photograph: Wellcome Collection

NY Post

Ambras Syndrome

Ambras syndrome, also known as hypertrichosis universalis congenita, is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by excessive hair growth all over the body, including the face. Individuals with Ambras syndrome have a unique appearance due to the dense hair growth, which can resemble the hair of a “werewolf.”



Amiantacea is a condition in which tightly adherent scales form around the hair shafts, causing the hair to become matted and difficult to remove. This condition often occurs in conjunction with scalp disorders like psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, or lichen planopilaris.


Anagen Effluvium

Anagen effluvium is a type of hair loss that occurs during the anagen (growth) phase of the hair cycle. It is often associated with chemotherapy or radiation treatments, as these therapies target rapidly dividing cells, including hair follicles. Hair loss is abrupt and can lead to significant thinning or baldness.


Androgen Related Hairloss in Men

Androgenetic alopecia, commonly referred to as male pattern baldness, is the most common cause of hair loss in men. It is characterized by a progressive thinning of hair on the crown and frontal scalp due to the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on genetically predisposed hair follicles.


Androgen Related Hairloss in Women

Androgenetic alopecia in women, known as female pattern hair loss, leads to diffuse thinning of the scalp. It is influenced by genetics and hormonal factors, particularly the presence of androgens. Women may experience widening of the part and overall reduced hair density.


Anorexia and Hairloss

Anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by extreme calorie restriction, can lead to hair loss as the body diverts nutrients away from non-essential functions like hair growth. Severe malnutrition disrupts the hair cycle, causing shedding and thinning.


Asymmetrical Hair Loss

Asymmetrical hair loss refers to hair thinning or loss that occurs unevenly across the scalp. This type of hair loss can result from various factors, including medical conditions, hair care practices, or underlying scalp conditions.


Beard and Hair Transplanting

Beard and hair transplanting involve the surgical transfer of hair follicles from a donor area to a recipient area, typically the scalp or beard region. This procedure is used to restore hair density in areas with hair loss or to enhance beard growth.



Bubble hair syndrome is caused by excessive heat exposure to wet hair, resulting in the formation of air bubbles within the hair shaft. These bubbles weaken the hair, making it prone to breakage and split ends.


Bulimia and Hair Loss

Bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging, can lead to hair loss due to nutritional deficiencies and stress on the body. Inadequate nutrient intake affects the hair growth cycle, leading to shedding.



Canities, commonly known as graying hair, is the natural loss of hair pigmentation with age. It occurs when the production of melanin decreases in hair follicles, resulting in the characteristic gray or white appearance.


CCCA (Central Centrifugal Cicatrizing Alopecia)

CCCA is a form of scarring hair loss that primarily affects women of African descent. It starts at the central scalp and gradually spreads outward, leading to hair thinning and scarring. The exact cause is unclear, but genetics, hair care practices, and inflammation may contribute.


Chemotherapy and Hair Loss

Chemotherapy-induced hair loss occurs as a side effect of cancer treatment. Chemotherapy targets rapidly dividing cells, including hair follicles, leading to hair thinning or complete hair loss. Hair regrowth usually occurs after treatment.


Cradle Cap and Hair Loss

Cradle cap, or seborrheic dermatitis, can affect infants and lead to flaky, oily, or crusty patches on the scalp. In severe cases, it may cause hair loss, but the condition is generally temporary and treatable.



Dandruff is a common scalp condition characterized by the shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. It can lead to itching, flaking, and irritation. While dandruff itself doesn’t cause significant hair loss, scratching and inflammation may impact hair health.


Diffuse Alopecia

Diffuse alopecia refers to widespread hair thinning across the scalp. It can result from various factors, including hormonal imbalances, medical conditions, medications, and nutritional deficiencies.



Diffuse pattern alopecia (DPA) and diffuse unpatterned alopecia (DUPA) are terms used to describe progressive hair thinning without a specific pattern. DPA is often associated with androgenetic alopecia, while DUPA is characterized by thinning throughout the scalp.



Dutasteride is a medication used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. It inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which contributes to hair loss in genetically susceptible individuals.


Eyelash Transplanting

Eyelash transplanting involves the surgical transplantation of hair follicles to enhance eyelash growth. This procedure is used to address sparse or thin eyelashes and is performed with meticulous precision.



Favus is a fungal infection that primarily affects the scalp and hair follicles. It can lead to hair loss and the formation of characteristic yellow crusts, which may result in permanent scarring.


Ferritin and Hair Loss

Ferritin is a protein that stores iron in the body. Low ferritin levels have been associated with hair shedding and thinning, although the relationship between ferritin and hair loss is complex and influenced by various factors.


Folliculitis Decalvans

Folliculitis decalvans is a rare inflammatory condition that leads to hair loss and scarring. It is characterized by the formation of pustules, crusts, and follicular destruction.


Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia

Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a type of scarring hair loss that primarily affects the frontal hairline and eyebrow region. It is believed to involve immune system dysfunction and inflammation.


Green Hair

Green hair can result from the interaction between chlorine or copper in swimming pool water and hair dye or blonde hair. Chlorine and copper can cause hair to take on a greenish tint.


Hair Pigmentation

Hair pigmentation refers to the color of hair, which is determined by the presence and distribution of melanin pigment in the hair shaft. Different types of melanin produce various hair colors.


Hair Colour Loss

Hair color loss refers to the fading or loss of natural hair color due to factors like aging, genetics, or exposure to sunlight. It can result in the hair appearing gray or white.


Hair Dyes

Hair dyes are products used to alter the color of hair for cosmetic purposes. They contain pigments that penetrate the hair shaft and deposit color molecules. There are various types of hair dyes, including permanent, semi-permanent, and temporary options. While hair dyes can provide a fresh look, they may cause allergic reactions or hair damage if not used carefully.


Hair Transplant Surgery

Hair transplant surgery is a medical procedure designed to restore hair density in areas of hair loss. It involves the extraction of hair follicles from a donor area (usually the back of the scalp) and their transplantation to the recipient area. This surgical technique is effective in treating androgenetic alopecia and other forms of hair loss.


Hair Extensions and Hair Loss

Hair extensions are synthetic or natural hair strands that are added to existing hair to enhance length or volume. While extensions can provide a desired aesthetic, improper installation, excessive weight, and tension can lead to hair loss or damage. Proper care and maintenance are essential to prevent complications.


Head Lice

Head lice are parasitic insects that infest the scalp, causing itching and discomfort. They spread through direct head-to-head contact and can affect people of all ages. While head lice infestations do not cause permanent hair loss, excessive scratching can lead to temporary hair damage



Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can cause cold sores or fever blisters on or around the mouth. HSV can also lead to herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles. While these infections do not directly cause hair loss, shingles can affect the scalp and cause temporary hair loss in the affected area.


Idiopathic Trichoclasia

Idiopathic trichoclasia is a condition characterized by the presence of broken hairs with uneven tips. It often results from hair manipulation practices such as frequent brushing, rubbing, or chemical treatments.



mpetigo is a bacterial skin infection that can affect the scalp and hair follicles. It leads to the formation of red sores or blisters that can ooze and crust over. While impetigo does not typically cause permanent hair loss, severe cases can result in scarring.


Lichen Planus (Planopilaris)

Lichen planus is an inflammatory skin condition that can affect the scalp, leading to scarring and hair loss. It causes red or purplish bumps and can result in permanent hair follicle damage.


Lichen Simplex

Lichen simplex is a skin disorder characterized by thickened, itchy patches on the scalp. It often results from repeated scratching and can cause hair loss in the affected areas.


Loose Anagen Syndrome

Loose anagen syndrome is a hair disorder in which hair follicles have a weakened attachment to the scalp. This leads to hair that is easily pulled out and does not grow as long as expected.


Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation and damage to various parts of the body, including the scalp. Discoid lupus erythematosus can lead to scarring and hair loss on the scalp.


Malignant Melanoma

Malignant melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can also occur on the scalp. Early detection and treatment are crucial to prevent its spread.


Morphology of the Pilo-sebaceous Unit

The pilo-sebaceous unit refers to the hair follicle and associated sebaceous gland. Understanding its morphology is essential in diagnosing and treating hair and scalp conditions.



Monilethrix is a rare genetic condition that causes hair shaft abnormalities, resulting in fragile, beaded hair strands that are prone to breakage.


Nutrition and Hair Health

Nutrition plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy hair. A balanced diet rich in vitamins, minerals, and proteins supports optimal hair growth and prevents hair loss.


Pediculus Capitis

Pediculus capitis, commonly known as head lice, infest the scalp and can cause itching and discomfort. Prompt treatment is necessary to eliminate the infestation and prevent complications.


Pemphigus is a group of autoimmune disorders that cause blistering of the skin, including the scalp. While rare, pemphigus can lead to scarring and hair loss.



Pityriasis refers to a group of skin disorders, including pityriasis capitis (dandruff) and pityriasis amiantacea (scaling of the scalp). These conditions can lead to itching and flaking.


Planopilaris (Lichen Planus)

Planopilaris, a variant of lichen planus, is an inflammatory condition that can result in scarring and permanent hair loss on the scalp.


Plica Polonica

Plica polonica is a condition characterized by severely tangled hair masses that may form matted masses. It can result from neglect or certain hair care practices.


Pseudo Pelade (Brocq)

Pseudo pelade, also known as Brocq’s alopecia, is a term used to describe a type of scarring alopecia that resembles alopecia areata. It results in permanent hair loss due to follicular destruction.


Psoriasis of the Scalp

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can affect the scalp, causing red, scaly patches. Scalp psoriasis can lead to temporary hair loss in the affected areas.


Ringworm of the Scalp

Ringworm of the scalp, or tinea capitis, is a fungal infection that can cause hair loss and the formation of scaly patches on the scalp.


Scalp Shingles

Scalp shingles, caused by the herpes zoster virus, can lead to painful blisters on the scalp and may result in temporary hair loss in the affected area.


Seborrhoeic Dermatitis

Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common scalp condition that causes redness, itching, and flaking. While it doesn’t typically cause hair loss, excessive scratching can impact hair health.


Serum Ferritin and Hair Loss

Serum ferritin levels are linked to hair health. Low ferritin levels may contribute to hair shedding and thinning, although the relationship is complex and influenced by various factors.


Serum Iron and Hair Loss

Serum iron levels play a role in hair health. Iron deficiency can lead to hair shedding and thinning due to its impact on the hair growth cycle.


Telogen Effluvium

Telogen effluvium is a temporary form of hair loss that occurs after a significant physical or emotional stressor. It leads to increased shedding of hair in the telogen (resting) phase of the hair cycle.


Traction Alopecia

Traction alopecia results from prolonged tension on the hair shafts, often due to tight hairstyles or hair accessories. It causes hair loss along the hairline or in areas of repeated tension.



Trichoptilosis, commonly known as split ends, occurs when the hair shaft splits at the tips. It can result from hair damage and certain styling practices.


Trichorrhexis Nodosa

Trichorrhexis nodosa is a hair disorder characterized by weak points in the hair shaft, leading to the formation of nodules or nodes that can break easily.



Trichothiodystrophy is a rare genetic disorder that causes hair to be brittle, fragile, and prone to breakage. It is often accompanied by other physical and developmental abnormalities.



Trichotillomania is a psychological disorder characterized by the irresistible urge to pull out one’s hair. It leads to noticeable hair loss and can have significant emotional effects.


Tufted Folliculitis

Tufted folliculitis is a rare condition characterized by closely spaced hair follicles with areas of scarring and inflammation.


Woolly Hair Syndrome

Woolly hair syndrome is a genetic condition that results in tightly coiled and wiry hair texture. It is often present from birth and may affect the scalp and body hair.


These explanations provide concise overviews of various hair and scalp conditions, shedding light on their characteristics, causes, and effects.